Impact of Shisha and Cigarette Smoking on Lung Functions in Young Adults
Shisha smoking & lung function tests
Objective: To determine the impact of shisha and cigarette smoking on lungs functions and compare the pulmonary function test parameters between shisha, cigarette smokers and non-smokers.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Aziz Fatima Medical and Dental College Faisalabad from January to September 2018. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Ethical committee. This study consisted of 100 male college students of age 18 to 25 years. Participants were enrolled on voluntary basis. Prior to study, students of Faisalabad based colleges were invited for study. A detailed interview of subjects was taken. Subjects were questioned regarding the smoking habits using pre designed proforma. Subjects who currently smoked cigarettes were classified as cigarette smokers. Subjects using shisha were categorized as shisha smokers. A third category was formed which included subjects using both shisha and cigarettes, subjects without any type of smoking were non-smokers Anthropometric measurements including height and weight were taken and BMI was calculated by formula weight in kg/ height in m2. Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC were performed by digital spirometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS22. Values of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were presented as mean ± SD and compared by ANOVA. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: Study comprised 100 participants of mean age 20.71±1.87 years. Out of the total study participants 16(16%) were cigarette smokers, 11(10.3%) were shisha smokers, 22(20.7%) were users of both cigarettes as well as shisha and 51(48,1%) were non-smokers. All three parameters of lung functions including FVC (p value = 0.005), FEV1 (p value = 0.046) and FEV1/FVC (p value = 0.023) were lower in cigarette smokers and significantly different from non-smokers. All three lung parameters of shisha smokers were also lower than non-smokers but statistical difference was found only in FVC values (p value = 0.000). FEV1 (2.73 versus 1.5, p value= 0.66) and FEV1/FVC (63 versus 50.5, p value= 0.449) was higher in shisha smokers as compared to cigarette smokers but the difference was statistically not significant. FVC value of shisha smokers was lower than cigarette smokers (2.42 versus 2.89) but no significant difference was noted (p value =0.59).
Conclusion: Lung function parameters FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, were reduced in cigarette and shisha smokers as compared to non-smokers. Shisha and cigarette both adversely affect lung functions, however shisha is less harmful than cigarette smoking.